The Trauma Audit and Research Network

TARN Research
The TARN database provides an excellent platform for trauma research locally, nationally and internationally. Below is a list of our most recent research publications.

Click on the title of a paper for Open Access options (where available).

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Major trauma among E-Scooter and bicycle users: a nationwide cohort study.
R A Clough, E Platt, E Cole, M Wilson, C Aylwin
Inj Prev 2023;0:1–5. doi:10.1136/ip-2022-044722

Does major Trauma centre care improve patient outcomes after low-energy Trauma.
M. Tonkins, F. Lecky and O. Bouamra
EMJ, Published on line first February 2023, doi: 10.1136/emermed-2022-212393


Variation in timely surgery for severe open tibial fractures by time and place of presentation in England from 2012 – 2019.
A cohort study using data collected nationally by the Trauma Audit and Research Network
A. Shah, A. Judge and X. l. Griffin
Bone and Joint Open, Volume 3, Issue 12, 2022, Pages 941 - 952

Regional variation in the provision of major trauma services for the older injured patient
J. Dixon, O. Bouamra, F. Lecky, C. B. Hing, M. Baxter, W. Eardley
Injury, Volume 53, Issue 7, 2022, Pages 2470-2477

A national study of 23 major trauma centres to investigate the effect of frailty on clinical outcomes in older people admitted with serious injury in England (FiTR 1): a multicentre observational study
Philip Braude, Roxanna Short, Omar Bouamra, David Shipway, Fiona Lecky, Edward Carlton, Jonathan Benger, Adam Gordon, Ben Carter
Lancet Healthy Longev 2022; 3: e540–48

A national study of 23 major trauma centres to investigate the effect of a geriatrician assessment on clinical outcomes in older people admitted with serious injury in England (FiTR 2): a multicentre observational cohort study
Philip Braude, Roxanna Short, Omar Bouamra, David Shipway, Fiona Lecky, Edward Carlton, Jonathan Benger, Adam Gordon, Ben Carter
The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Volume 3, Issue 8, 2022, Pages e549-e557

Major trauma associated with mobility scooters: An analysis of the trauma audit research network
O Krahelski, S Sivarajah, W Eardley, T O Smith, C B Hing
Volume 53, Issue 9, 3011-18

Use of tranexamic acid in major trauma: a sex-disaggregated analysis of the Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage (CRASH-2 and CRASH-3) trials and UK trauma registry (Trauma and Audit Research Network) data
Tim Nutbeam, Ian Roberts, Lauren Weekes, Haleema Shakur-Still, Amy Brenner, Francois-Xavier Ageron
British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 129, Issue 2, 2022, Pages 191-199

A retrospective review of patients who sustained traumatic brain injury in Ireland 2014 – 2019 Injury, 2022
S Gilmartin, L Brent, M Hanrahan, M Dunphy, C Deasy
Elsevier Volume 53, Issue 11, November 2022, Pages 3680-3691

Opportunities to improve the impact of two national clinical audit programmes: a theory-guided analysis
TA Willis, S. Wood, J. Brehaut, H. Colquhoun, B. Brown, F. Lorencatto & R. Foy
British Medical Journal

Do entrapment, injuries, outcomes and potential for self-extrication vary with age? A pre-specified analysis of the UK trauma registry (TARN)
T. Nutbeam, A. Kehoe, R. Fenwick, J. Smith, O. Bouamra, L. Wallis and W. Stassen
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 2022, 30(14);


Tranexamic acid for major trauma patients in Ireland
K. Walsh, F. O’Keeffe, L. Brent, and B. Mitra
World Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2022, 13(1), pp.136-142; doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2022.003

Comparative analysis of major incident triage tools in children: a UK population-based analysis
J. Vassallo, S. Chernbumroong, N. Malik, Y. Xu, D. Keene, G. Gkoutos, M.D. Lyttle and J. Smith in collaboration with PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in the UK and Ireland)
Emergency Medicine Journal, 2021; doi:10.1136/emermed-2021-211706

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to hanging: a retrospective analysis
J. Turner, A, Brown, R. Boldy, J. Lumley-Holmes, A. Rosser and A. James
Emergency Medicine Journal, 2021; doi:10.1136/ emermed-2020-210839

Impact of a physician – critical care practitioner pre-hospital service in Wales on trauma survival: a retrospective analysis of linked registry data
J. Lyons, B. J. Gabbe, D. Rawlinson, D. Lockey, R. J. Fry, A. Akbari and R. A. Lyons
Anaesthesia, 2021;

External validation of the Dutch prediction model for prehospital triage of trauma patients in South West region of England, United Kingdom
T.A.G Shanahan, G. W. Fuller, T. Sheldon, E. Turton, F.M.A. Quilty and C. Marincowitz
Injury, 2021, 52, pp. 1108-1116;

New concept: “TARN friendly trauma reporting” (what radiologists say really does matter)
P.Jenkins, P.Coates, J.Fong, A.Eccles, L.Drake and T.Hudson
Clinical Radiology, 2021;

The BCD Triage Sieve outperforms all existing major incident triage tools: Comparative analysis using the UK national trauma registry population
N.S.Malik, S. Chernbumroong, Y. Xu, J. Vassallo, J. Lee, D.M. Bowley, T.Hodgetts, C.G. Moran, J.M. Lord, A. Belli, D. Keene, M. Foster, and G.V. Gkoutos
EClinicalMedicine, 2021, 36;

Healthcare system impacts of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing: evidence from a national trauma registry patient case series and hospital performance data.
P. Dark, M. Smith, H. Ziman, S. Carley, and F. Lecky Manchester Academic Health Science Centre (MAHSC) Collaborators
Emergency Medicine Journal, 2021, doi:10.1136/emermed-2019-208575

Mortality in Adolescent Trauma: a comparison of children’s, mixed and adult major Trauma Centres
Jordan Evans, Hannah Murch, Roisin Begley, Damian Roland, Mark D Lyttle, Omar Bouamra, Stephen Mullen
BMJ, 2021; doi:10.1136/emermed-2020-210384

National temporal variation in major trauma in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
W. Kieffer, D. Michalik, J. Bernard, O. Bouamra and B. Rogers
Trauma, 2021; doi: 10.1177/1460408620982264

A comparison of the demographics, injury patterns and outcome data for patients injured in motor vehicle collisions who are trapped compared to those patients who are not trapped
T. Nutbeam, R. Fenwick, J. Smith, O. Bouamra, L. Wallis and W. Stassen
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 2021, 29(17);


Bypassing the nearest emergency department for a more distant neurosurgical centre in traumatic brain injury patients
C. J. Prosser , D. Edwards , O. Boumara , G. Fuller , D. Holliman and F. Lecky
British Journal of Neurosurgery, 2020; DOI:10.1080/02688697.2020.1858026 

Helicopter and ground emergency medical services transportation to hospital after major trauma in England: a comparative cohort study
O. Beaumont, F. Lecky, O. Bouamra, D. Surendra Kumar, T. Coats, D. Lockey and K. Willett
Trauma Surgery Acute Care Open, 2020, 5:e000508; doi:10.1136/tsaco-2020-000508 

Optimizing the availability of enhanced prehospital care team resources
N. Hewitt, M. Davenport, M. Smyth, & T. Smith
Air Medical Journal, 2020, 39, pp.351-359; doi:10.1016/j.amj.2020.06.003 

Traumatic brain injury probability of survival assessment in adults using iterative random comparison classification
M. Salah, R. Saatchi, F. Lecky & D. Burke
Healthcare Technology Letters, 2020, 7(5), pp.119-124; doi: 10.1049/htl.2019.0029 

Epidemiology of adult rib fracture and factors associated with surgical fixation: Analysis of a chest wall injury dataset from England and Wales
H.M.A. Ingoe, W. Eardley, C. McDaid, A. Rangan, T. Lawrence & C. Hewitt
Injury, 2020, 51(2), pp.218-223;

Mortality and morbidity of stairlift injuries: Analysis of the UK TARN database
O. O’Malley, O. Ryan, G. Wilson, M. Islam, T.O. Smith & C.B. Hing
Injury, 2020, 51, pp.1306–1311; doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2020.04.004/

Low falls causing major injury: a retrospective study
K. Lesko & C. Deasy
Irish Journal of Medical Science, 2020; doi:10.1007/s11845-020-02212-8

Have changes in computerised tomography guidance positively impacted detection of cervical spine injury in children? A review of the Trauma Audit and Research Network data
C. Nunn, S. Negus, T. Lawrence, F. Lecky, & D. Roland
Trauma, 2020; doi: 10.1177/1460408620939381

Time to definitive care in English major trauma networks
N.R. Haslam, O Bouamra, T Lawrence, C.G. Moran, & D.J. Lockey
BJS Open 2020 Jul 9. doi: 10.1002/bjs5.50316 2020

Cross-validation of two Prognostic Trauma scores in severely injured patients
Rolf Lefering, Stefan Huber-Wagner, Bertil Bouillon, Tom Lawrence, Fiona Lecky, Omar Bouamra
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 2020

Variations in the management of adolescents with blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: are we preserving enough?
PA Green, DJ Wilkinson, O Bouamra, M Fragoso, PJ Farrelly
The Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2020

Serious sports related injury in England and Wales from 2012-2017: a study protocol
M. A. M. Davies, T. Lawrence, A. Edwards, F. Lecky, C. D. McKay, K. A. Stokes & S. Williams
Injury Epidemiology, 2020, 7(14); doi:10.1186/s40621-020-00243-4

High Riding Prostate: Epidemiology of Genitourinary Injury in Motorcyclists from a UK Register of over 12,000 victims.
Moss B.F, Moss C.E, Dervin P, Lawrence T, Jones S, Thomas S
Current Urology 2020, 14(2), pp.105–112; doi: 10.1159/000499251

Head and neck injury in major trauma in Ireland: a multicentre retrospective analysis of patterns and surgical workload.
A. Mohamed, J. Mulcaire and A.J.P. Clover
Irish Journal of Medical Science, 2020;


Cycling related major trauma in Ireland
James Foley, Marina Cronin, Louise Brent, Tom Lawrence, Ciaran Simms, Kevin Gildea, John Ryan, Conor Deasy, John Cronin
Injury 2019 21:5

Age and the distribution of major injury across a national trauma system
Jan Robert Dixon, Fiona Lecky, Omar Bouamra, Paul Dixon, Faye Wilson, Antoinette Edwards, Will Eardley
Age and Ageing 2019; 00: 1–9

Epidemiology of adolescent trauma in England: a review of TARN data 2008–2017
Zoe Roberts, Julie-Ann Collins, David James, Omar Bouamra, Mike Young, Mark D Lyttle, Damian Roland, Stephen Mullen, On behalf of PERUKI
Emerg Med J 2019;0:1–6

Urethral injury in major trauma
Battaloglu E, Figuero M, Moran C, Lecky F, Porter K
Injury, Int J. Care Injured 2019; 1053-1057

Open tibial fractures in major trauma centres: A national prospective cohort study of current practice
Young K, Aquilina A, Chesser TJS, Costa ML, Hettiaratchy S, Kelly MB, Moran CG, Pallister I, Woodford M; MTC-22
Injury 2019; 50 (2):497-502

Evaluating the impact of cycle helmet use on severe traumatic brain injury and death in a national cohort of over 11000 pedal cyclists: a retrospective study from the NHS England Trauma Audit and Research Network dataset
Nick Dodds, Rowena Johnson, Benjamin Walton, Omar Bouamra, David Yates, Fiona Elizabeth Lecky, Julian Thompson
BMJ Open 2019;9:e027845. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027845

Trends in admission timing and mechanism of injury can be used to improve general surgical trauma training
AP Pearce, MER Marsden, N Newell, K Hancorn, F Lecky, K Brohi, N Tai
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2019; 00: 1–7

Patterns of moderate and severe injury in children after the introduction of major trauma networks
Samantha Jones, Sarah Tyson, Michael Young, Matthew Gittins, Naomi Davis
Arch Dis Child 2019. doi:10.1136/ archdischild-2018-315636

Investigating the effects of under-triage by existing major incident triage tools
James M Vassallo, Jason E Smith, Lee A Wallis
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2019, 26(2), pp:139-144; doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000513


Socioeconomic status and 30-day mortality after minor and major trauma: A retrospective analysis of the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) dataset for England
Philip McHale, Daniel Hungerford, David Taylor-Robinson, Thomas Lawrence, Timothy Astles, Ben Morton
PLoS ONE 2018;13 (12): e0210226.

Maxillofacial injuries in patients with major trauma
McGoldrick DM, Fragoso-Iñiguez M, Lawrence T, McMillan K.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 56(6):496-500

Incidence of combined burns and major trauma in England and Wales
Emir Battaloglu, Marisol Fragoso Iniguez, Fiona Lecky, Keith Porter
Trauma 2018; 0(0):1-5

Motorcyclists and pillion passengers with open lower-limb fractures: a study using TARN data 2007–2014
AGC Hay-David, T Stacey, I Pallister on behalf of the Trauma Audit and Research Network Research Committee, University of Manchester
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2018; 100: 203–208

Implementation of tranexamic acid for bleeding trauma patients: a longitudinal and cross-sectional study
Coats TJ, Fragoso-Iñiguez M, Roberts I
Emerg Med J. 2018 Dec 8. pii: emermed-2018-207693. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-207693

Changing the system-major trauma patients and their outcomes in the NHS (England) 2008–17
Moran, Christopher G., Fiona Lecky, Omar Bouamra, Tom Lawrence, Antoinette Edwards, Maralyn Woodford, Keith Willett, and Timothy J. Coats
EClinicalMedicine 2 (2018): 13-21

Impact of a physician-led pre-hospital critical care team on outcomes after major trauma.
Hepple DJ, Durrand JW, Bouamra O, Godfrey P
Anaesthesia. 2018 Dec 5. doi: 10.1111/anae.14501

Disparities in the management of paediatric splenic injury
A. M. Warwick, T. Jenks, R. Fisher, R. Garrett-Cox, F. Lecky, D. Yates et al
British Journal of Surgery (2018)

Comparison of two prognostic models in trauma outcome
A Cook, T Osler, L Glance, O Bouamra, J Weddle, B Gross, J Ward, FO Moore, F Rogers, D Hosmer
British Journal of Surgery DOI: 10.1002/bjs.10764

Fractures of the femoral shaft in children: national epidemiology and treatment trends in England following activation of major trauma networks
C. Talbot, N. Davis, I. Majid, M. Young, O. Bouamra, F. E. Lecky, S. Jones
Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:109–18.

The volume-outcome relationship in severely injured patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Charlie A. Sewalt, Eveline J. A. Wiegers, Esmee Venema, Fiona E. Lecky, Stephanie C. E. Schuit, Dennis Den Hartog, Hester F. Lingsma
J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018; 85(4):810-819

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